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Website Research 101: What is Qualitative and Quantitative Data?

There are two types of data you can rely on when planning, designing and marketing a website: qualitative and quantitative. Here are the differences.

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by Eric Sharp

There are two types of data you can rely on when planning, designing and marketing a website: qualitative and quantitative.

Uhh, what?

Unless you’re a math genius or science buff, those two words probably aren’t part of your daily vocabulary. They’re difficult to pronounce and even harder to write! (Thank you spell check.)

Are these fancy words just more gobbledygook to make us web designers look smart? Or, do these two types of data have meaning and value in the website research phase? This will come as no surprise, but I’d argue the latter.

what is qualitative and quantitative data

Here’s the 101 behind qualitative data and quantitative data as it relates to gathering research for the design, redesign or improvement of a website.


The landscape of research methods as outlined in Mr. Mulder’s book

What is Qualitative data?

Qualitative data is non-numerical data. It shows you the why and how.

In his book, The User is Always Right, Steve Mulder explains that qualitative data can be thought of as insights.

These insights are extracted directly from people through face-to-face conversations, phone calls or virtual meeting software.

Types of Qualitative data

Talking to end-users in focus groups and then observing their website behavior in usability and eyetracking studies are excellent qualitative exercises (image credits: GiltUX, TryDevKit)

Some popular activities to obtain qualitative website data:

  1. User interviews – one-on-one discussions with the website’s end-users around a specific topic
  2. Focus groups – 3-12 participants lead through a discussion about a set of topics, giving verbal and written feedback (note: it’s easy to misuse focus groups)
  3. Card sorting – users organize information into groups and assign categories (a collaborative approach to designing the structure of a website)
  4. Eyetracking Tests – measures where participants look as they interact with a website
  5. Usability testing – users are given a website task and observed to see if problems arise (can be done in a lab or remotely using screen-sharing software)

What is Quantitative data?

Quantitative data is the flip side of qualitative — it’s numerical. It shows the who, what, when and where.

Quantitative data is statistical and provides validation — a more scientific approach.

Rather than extracting this data from people, it can be found in programs such as Google Analytics, SurveyMonkey, CrazyEgg and conversion optimization tools like Optimizely or Unbounce.

Types of Quantitative data

quantitative data examples

Gathering numerical quantitative data through analytics, surveys and heatmaps helps you see what’s actually happening on your website

Some popular activities to obtain quantitative website data:

  1. Traffic Analytics – demographics, pageviews, marketing channels, conversions (to name a few)
  2. Heatmaps – where people are clicking
  3. Scrollmaps – how far people scroll (it’s a myth that people don’t scroll)
  4. A/B Tests – also known as “multivariate testing”, a method of scientifically testing different designs
  5. Surveys – carefully selected questions sent to end-users or major stakeholders (typically done via email)

Both sets of data help create website-specific user personas

So, what do you do with all this wonderful data? Use it!

By gathering both types of data, you’re laying the groundwork for the creation or sharpening of your user personas — one of the most critical deliverables to your website strategy phase. You can also apply your findings to improve the existing user experience by fixing problems or making enhancements.

Ready for user research? Read this

Use data, not opinions

Today’s website requires more than “oohs and ahhs” to be successful. It needs, no, demands, a data-driven design approach.

If you’re currently designing, redesigning or improving a website, I urge you to collect and utilize real insights and validation — not opinions.

Using both qualitative and quantitative data will make for a better website experience for your audience and generate the results that matter.

We believe a conversion-focused website — paired with the proper traffic, content, automation, and end-to-end ROI measurement — equips B2B technology companies with a real asset to scale their business.


Years in business


Minimum growth in quality leads our clients see after an engagement


Websites we've created, supported, or consulted over the last decade


The jargon we speak (we'll approach conversation like a layperson)